The best therapy for acute musculoskeletal injuries is ice. If ice is applied to the area of pain there is often a reduction of pain, swelling, inflammation, and muscle spasm. The cold pack should be used for only 15 to 20 minutes with a cloth layer between the ice pack. The ice pack should be removed to allow the skin to warm up after 20 minutes. If pain is increased after icing, stop using the ice.
Muscles soreness can accompany many forms of physical activity. A particular type of muscle soreness is known as DOMS (delayed onset muscle soreness). This usually develops 24-48 hours after unfamiliar physical activity. Six theories of DOMS include: lactic acid buildup, muscle spasm, torn tissues, connective tissue injury, enzyme efflux, and tissue fluid buildup. Individuals that train more often tend to experience few occurrences of DOMS, but can still arise. Typically, anti-inflammatory medications do not alleviate DOMS. Individuals can seek other treatment options for DOMS which include; warm-down stretching or lifts, post-event massage, hydrotherapy, and active non-weight-bearing exercise.
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